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Anti-influenza virus activity of propolis in vitro and its efficacy against influenza infection in mice.
Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, Nobeoka, Miyazaki, Japan.
BACKGROUND: Propolis has been used worldwide as a dietary supplement to maintain and improve human health. We examined whether ethanol extracts of Brazilian propolis exhibit antiviral activity against influenza virus in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Among 13 ethanol extracts screened in a plaque reduction assay, four showed anti-influenza virus activity. The anti-influenza efficacy of the four extracts was further examined in a murine influenza virus infection model. The mice were infected intranasally with influenza virus, and the four extracts were orally administered at 10 mg/kg three times daily for seven successive days after infection. RESULTS: In this infection model, only one extract, AF-08, was significantly effective at 10 mg/kg in reducing the body weight loss of infected mice. The doses of 2 and 10 mg/kg were also effective in prolonging the survival times of infected mice significantly, but 0.4 mg/kg was not. The anti-influenza efficacy of AF-08 at 10 mg/kg was confirmed in a dose-dependent manner in mice. AF-08 at 10 mg/kg significantly reduced virus yields in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of lungs in infected mice as compared with the control. The reduction of virus yields by AF-08 at 10 mg/kg significantly corresponded to those induced by oseltamivir at 1 mg/kg twice daily from day 1 to day 4 after infection. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian propolis AF-08 was indicated to possess anti-influenza virus activity and to ameliorate influenza symptoms in mice. AF-08 may be a possible candidate for an anti-influenza dietary supplement for humans.
Oseltamivir is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in adults and children (older than 1 year of age) who have had symptoms of the flu for no longer than 2 days. This medication is also used to prevent...
Source: AHFS Consumer Medication Information
Published in Cancer Detection and Prevention 1998; 22(6):506-515.
Apoptosis and Suppression of Tumor Growth by Artepillin C Extracted From Brazilian Propolis
Tetsuo Kimoto, M.D., Ph.D.,a Shigeyuki Arai, D.V.M., Ph.D.,a Michihiro Kohguchi, B.S., a Miho Aga, B.Pharm.,a Yutaka Nomura, B.S., a Mark J. Micallef, Ph.D.,a Masashi Kurimoto, M.S.,a and Keiichiro Mito, Ph.D.b
ABSTRACT: Artepillin C was extracted from Brazilian propolis. Artepillin C (3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) has a molecular weight of 300.40 and possesses antibacterial activity. When artepillin C was applied to human and murine malignant tumor cells in vitroand in vivo, artepillin C exhibited a cytotoxic effect and the growth of tumor cells was clearly inhibited. The artepillin C was found to cause significant damage to solid tumor and leukemic cells by the MTT assay, DNA synthesis assay, and morphological observation in vitro. When xenografts of human tumor cells were transplanted into nude mice, the cytotoxic effects of artepillin C were most noticeable in carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Apoptosis, abortive mitosis, and massive necrosis combined were identified by histological observation after intratumor injection of 500 μg of artepillin C three times a week. In addition to suppression of tumor growth, there was an increase in the ratio of CD4/CD8 T cells, and in the total number of helper T cells. These findings indicate that artepillin C activates the immune system, and possesses direct antitumor activity.
Artepillin C (3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is an active ingredient of Brazilian propolis that possesses anti-tumor activity. When Artepillin C was applied to human leukemia cell lines of different phenotypes, namely, lymphocytic leukemia (7 cell lines of T-cell, 5 cell lines of B-cell), myeloid and monocytic leukemia and non-lymphoid non-myeloid leukemia cell lines in vitro, Artepillin C exhibited potent cytocidal effects and induced marked levels of apoptosis in all the cell lines. The most potent effects were observed in the T-cell lines. Apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation were induced in the cell lines after exposure to Artepillin C. DNA synthesis in the leukemia cells was clearly inhibited and disintegration of the cells was confirmed microscopically. Apoptosis of the leukemia cells may be partially associated with enhanced Fas antigen expression and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In contrast, although Artepillin C inhibited the growth of pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-stimulated normal blood lymphocytes, it was not cytocidal to normal unstimulated lymphocytes. These results suggested that Artepillin C, an active ingredient of Brazilian propolis, has anti-leukemic effects with limited inhibitory effects on normal lymphocytes.
Bioanalysis and Biotransformation Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, 130-650, Seoul, South Korea.
Since nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been known to be involved in inflammatory and autoimmune-mediated tissue destruction, modulation of NO synthesis or action represents a new approach to the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of honeybee propolis, has been identified to show anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-cancer activities. The present study, therefore, examined effects of CAPE on iNOS expression and activity of iNOS enzyme itself. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with CAPE significantly inhibited NO production and iNOS protein expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). CAPE also inhibited iNOS mRNA expression and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) binding activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, transfection of RAW 264.7 cells with iNOS promoter linked to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene, revealed that CAPE inhibited the iNOS promoter activity induced by LPS plus IFN-gamma through the NF-kappaB sites of the iNOS promoter. In addition, CAPE directly interfered with the catalytic activity of murine recombinant iNOS enzyme. These results suggest that CAPE may exert its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the iNOS gene expression at the transcriptional level through the suppression of NF-kappaB activation, and by directly inhibiting the catalytic activity of iNOS.
PMID: 11734336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Immune activation and radioprotection by propolis.
Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science 1001-1 Kishioka-cho, Suzuka-shi, Mie 510-0293, Japan.
In this study, we focused on immune stimulation by Propolis, and examined changes in the effect of irradiation after Propolis administration. We also examined the radioprotective effect of Propolis by observing its effect on the immune system. The effect of immune activation by Propolis was investigated by measuring the total immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM. The radioprotective effect of immune activation by Propolis was investigated by measuring the T-lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of mice following whole body irradiation. Compared with the control group, the IgG was significantly reduced in the Propolis group, indicating that Propolis suppressed IgG production. ELISA revealed that the amount of IgM in mouse serum was significantly higher in the Propolis group as compared with the control group, indicating that Propolis increased IgM production. The number of CD4-positive cells was increased only in the Propolis group. Likewise, the number of CD4-positive cells increased by 81% in the Propolis with irradiation group compared with the irradiation group alone. Compared with the control group, the Propolis group increased CD8-positive cells. Compared with the irradiation alone group, CD8-positive cells were decreased by Propolis with irradiation group. Propolis activated macrophages to stimulate interferon (IFN)-gamma production in association with the secondary activation of T-lymphocytes, resulting in a decrease in IgG and IgM production. Cytokines released from macrophages in mouse peripheral blood after Propolis administration activated helper T-cells to proliferate. In addition, activated macrophages in association with the secondary T-lymphocyte activation increased IFN-gamma production and stimulated proliferation of cytotoxic T-cells and suppressor T-cells, indicating the activation of cell-mediated immune responses.
PMID: 15974482 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Anti-AIDS agents. 48.(1) Anti-HIV activity of moronic acid derivatives and the new melliferone-related triterpenoid isolated from Brazilian propolis.
Natural Products Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, NC 27599, USA.
A new triterpenoid named melliferone (1), three known triterpenoids, moronic acid (2), anwuweizonic acid (3), and betulonic acid (4), and four known aromatic compounds (5-8) were isolated from Brazilian propolis and tested for anti-HIV activity in H9 lymphocytes. Moronic acid (2) showed significant anti-HIV activity (EC(50) <0.1>186) and was modified to develop more potent anti-AIDS agents.